Archive for the ‘iPS cells’ Category

Mouse Genetics. Methods and Protocols (2014)

Saturday, August 9th, 2014
LinkedIn
Mouse Genetics. Methods and Protocols (2014)

Mouse Genetics. Methods and Protocols (2014)

This is yet another interesting book in our field that has been published this year, 2014. This manual, entitled “Mouse Genetics. Methods and Protocols“, edited by Shree Ram Singh and Vinzenzo Coppola, in association with the Publisher, Humana Press/Springer, contains a collection of useful protocols covering most of the methods that can be currently applied for the genetic modification of the mouse genome. According to its presentation at the Springer web page, this book “provides selected mouse genetic techniques and their application in modeling varieties of human diseases. The chapters are mainly focused on the generation of different transgenic mice to accomplish the manipulation of genes of interest, tracing cell lineages, and modeling human diseases. (…) Each chapter contains a brief introduction, a list of necessary materials, systematic, readily reproducible methods, and a notes section, which shares tips on troubleshooting in order to avoid known pitfalls.

The table of contents of this book illustrates the variety of highly sophysticated methods, beyond standard techniques, that are discussed here in detail, around mouse genetics, including: pronuclear injection-based targeted transgenesis through Cre-loxP specific recombination, the use of recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) strategies, several approaches for preparing and analyzing conditional mutant alleles using tamoxifen-dependent Cre recombinases, the use of ICSI for the generation of transgenic mice, the use of BACs, mosaic analysis with double markers (MADM) in mice, transposon-mediated transgenesis, overexpression of microRNAs using Rosa26-mediated recombination, the isolation of various somatic and pluripotent cells, the generation of transgenic mice through spermatogonial stem cells in vivo, and, several illustrative examples of how different mouse engineered animal models are best suited to study a variety of human diseases. Hence, this book is also complementary to other recently published manuals, since it contains a careful detailed description of new methods that are not been covered in other similar titles in the field.

The editors of this book, Shree Ram Singh and Vinzenzo Coppola, have counted with the generous expertise shared and provided by a very large list of co-authors, including some ISTT members: Masato Ohtsuka, Kazuhito Sakamoto, Channabasavaiah B. Gurumurthy, Kay-Uwe Wagner, Petra Kraus, V. Sivakamasundari, Xing Xing, Thomas Lufkin, Anton J.M. Roebroek, Bart Van Gool, Kun-Hsiung Lee, Susanne Feil, Jana Krauss, Martin Thunemann, Robert Feil, Pedro N. Moreira, Lluis Montoliu, Jane Beil, Thorsten Buch, Sheng Ding, Tian Xu, Xiaohui Wu, Hui Zong, Claudia Piovan, Foued Amari, Francesca Lovat, Qun Chen, Olga Simmons, Esther M. Bolanis, Jian Wang, Simon J. Conway, Kanika Jain, Paul J. Verma, Jun Liu, Pollyanna Agnes Goh, Michael D. Williams, Wilson Wong, Amanda Rixon, Sarang N. Satoor, Anandwardhan A. Hardikar, Mugdha V. Joglekar, Andrei M. Vacaru, Joseph Vitale, Johnathan Nieves, Margaret H. Baron, Kristbjorn Orri Gudmundsson, Kevin Oakley, Yufen Han, Yang Du, Lalit Sehgal, Abul Usmani, Sorab N. Dalal, Subeer S. Majumdar, Spencer W. Luebben, Naoko Shima, Tsuyoshi Kawabata, Robert M. Hoffman, Viive M. Howell, Emily K. Colvin, Vishalakshi Chavali, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Paras Kumar Mishra, Julia Lorenz, Susanne Grässel, Ganesan Ramesh, Punithavathi Ranganathan, Santhakumar Manicassamy, Indumathi Manoharan, Deepak P. Patil, Holly D. Kristensen and Yogesh Shouche.

This new book will be added to the collection of Springer books published on animal transgenesis and animal genetics for which ISTT members are entitled to a 33% discount, as one of the many benefits associated with the ISTT membership.

 

 

TT2014 abstracts: submission deadline is approaching (30 June)

Tuesday, June 17th, 2014
LinkedIn
TT2014 abstracts: submission deadline is approaching (30 June)

TT2014 abstracts: submission deadline is approaching (30 June)

From the International Society for Transgenic Technologies (ISTT) we warmly invite and encourage you all to submit your most recent and exciting results and developments in animal transgenesis to be presented at the forthcoming 12th Transgenic Technology (TT2014) meeting, which will be held in Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, on 6-8 October 2014. Deadline for submitting abstracts for the TT2014 meeting is June 30.
To submit an abstract please visit this TT2014 meeting web page.

All TT2014 participants are encouraged to submit their work as an abstract for poster presentation at the TT2014 meeting. Authors are requested to submit an abstract with the following requirements:

  • Title (max. 25 words)
  • Name authors and affiliations (first author is the presenting author).
  • Text of the communication (max. 400 words).
  • Abstracts should be submitted no later than June 30, 2014.

Accepted abstracts will be published in the scientific journal Transgenic Research (Springer), to which the ISTT is associated.

Posters
Posters will be on display in the exhibition area throughout the duration of the meeting. Poster boards are 1.00m wide x 2.00m high and we recommend posters do not exceed 1.50m in length. A supply of Velcro tabs will be available at the venue. No screws or double-sided adhesive tape will be allowed due to the damage they can cause to the boards.

Best Poster Awards
All posters presented at the TT2014 meeting will be eligible for one of the ISTT Best Poster Awards, generously sponsored by Charles River, Inc.

Oral Presentations
A limited number of abstract submissions will be selected and invited to present their findings in the form of a short oral presentation within the main meeting program. Should you be interested in being considered to speak at the meeting please select the appropriate option when submitting your abstract.

Abstracts are invited on all aspects of Transgenic Technologies, including the conference themes as listed below:

  • New technologies in animal transgenesis
  • Embryo stem cells
  • Target nucleases or Editing nucleases (ZFNs, TALENs, CRISPRs)
  • Large-scale phenotyping
  • Animal Biotechnology
  • Imaging with transgenic animals
  • Mouse models of human disease
  • Zebrafish models of human disease and transgenesis
  • Animal ethics and welfare

We are looking forward to receiving your exciting works to discuss the latest development on animal transgenesis!. See you all in Edinburgh!

Submit your abstract(s) to the TT2014 meeting in Edinburgh: 30 June

Sunday, May 11th, 2014
LinkedIn
Submit your abstract(s) to the TT2014 meeting in Edinburgh: 30 June

Submit your abstract(s) to the TT2014 meeting in Edinburgh: 30 June

The submission of abstracts for the 12th Transgenic Technology (TT2014) meeting, to be held in Edinburgh (Scotland, UK), on 6-8 October, is OPEN. All TT2014 participants are encouraged to submit their work as an abstract for poster presentation at the TT2014 meeting. Authors are requested to submit an abstract with the following requirements: Title (max. 25 words), Name authors and affiliations (first author is the presenting author), and, Text of the communication (max. 400 words). Abstracts should be submitted no later than June 30, 2014. Accepted abstracts will be published in the scientific journal Transgenic Research (Springer), to which the ISTT is associated.

Posters
Posters will be on display in the exhibition area throughout the duration of the meeting. Poster boards are 1.00m wide x 2.00m high and we recommend posters do not exceed 1.50m in length. A supply of Velcro tabs will be available at the venue. No screws or double-sided adhesive tape will be allowed due to the damage they can cause to the boards. All presented Posters at the TT2014 meeting will be entitled to the Best Poster Awards, generously sponsored by Charles River.

Oral Presentations
A limited number of abstract submissions will be selected and invited to present their findings in the form of a short oral presentation within the main meeting program. Should you be interested in being considered to speak at the meeting please select the appropriate option when submitting your abstract.

Abstracts are invited on all aspects of Transgenic Technologies, including the conference themes as listed below:

  • New technologies in animal transgenesis
  • Embryo stem cells
  • Target nucleases or Editing nucleases (ZFNs, TALENs, CRISPRs)
  • Large-scale phenotyping
  • Animal Biotechnology
  • Imaging with transgenic animals
  • Mouse models of human disease
  • Zebrafish models of human disease and transgenesis
  • Animal ethics and welfare

Advertising the TT2014 meeting from your institutions: put one of these Posters!

Friday, February 28th, 2014
LinkedIn
12th Transgenic Technology (TT2014) meeting, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, 6-8 October 2014

12th Transgenic Technology (TT2014) meeting, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, 6-8 October 2014

The next ISTT meeting will be held in Europe this year. The 12th Transgenic Technology (TT2014) meeting, will take place in Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, on 6-8 October 2014, organized by ISTT members Douglas Strathdee (chair), Peter Hohenstein and Bruce Whitelaw, and hosted by three Scottish research institutes and the University of Edinburgh: the Roslin Institute; the Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine and the Beatson Institute for Cancer Research. The TT2014 meeting will be followed by the 2-day hands-on workshop “An Introduction to Zebrafish Transgenesis“, on 8-10 October 2014.

An outstanding group of invited speakers have confirmed their participation at the TT2014 meeting. Abstract submissions and application for the ISTT registration awards (for ISTT members) deadlines merge on 30 June 2014. Early bird registration deadline at reduced fees is 31 July 2014. A number of submitted abstracts will be selected for oral presentation on topics including:

  • new technologies in transgenesis
  • pluripotential stem cells
  • targeted nucleases and genome editing
  • models of human disease
  • animal ethics and welfare
  • large-scale phenotyping initiatives
  • animal biotechnology
  • in vivo imaging
  • zebrafish models and transgenesis

Douglas Strathdee and his colleagues have prepared the following collection of eight Posters to advertise the TT2014 meeting, illustrated with beautiful Edinburgh pictures. Please, help us announcing and disseminating the TT2014 meeting by putting one or several of these Posters at your centres, institutions, facilities, departments, universities. The TT meeting is a unique forum occurring every 18 months where to discuss the latest technical developments and applications on animal transgenesis. This is a conference that can’t be missed by anyone interested in this subject! Thanks for helping us advertise the TT2014 meeting!

TT2014 Poster version 1

TT2014 Poster version 1

TT2014 Poster version 1 (A4 format)
TT2014 Poster version 1 (A3 format)

TT2014 Poster version 2

TT2014 Poster version 2

TT2014 Poster version 2 (A4 format)
TT2014 Poster version 2 (A3 format)

TT2014 Poster version 3

TT2014 Poster version 3

TT2014 Poster version 3 (A4 format)
TT2014 Poster version 3 (A3 format)

TT2014 Poster version 4

TT2014 Poster version 4

TT2014 Poster version 4 (A4 format)
TT2014 Poster version 4 (A3 format)

TT2014 Poster version 5

TT2014 Poster version 5

TT2014 Poster version 5 (A4 format)
TT2014 Poster version 5 (A3 format)

TT2014 Poster version 6

TT2014 Poster version 6

TT2014 Poster version 6 (A4 format)
TT2014 Poster version 6 (A3 format)

TT2014 Poster version 7

TT2014 Poster version 7

TT2014 Poster version 7 (A4 format)
TT2014 Poster version 7 (A3 format)

TT2014 Poster version 8

TT2014 Poster version 8

TT2014 Poster version 8 (A4 format)
TT2014 Poster version 8 (A3 format)

More than 27,000 messages on animal transgenesis available to ISTT members through ISTT_list and tg-l archives

Sunday, February 9th, 2014
LinkedIn
More than 27,000 messages on animal transgenesis available through ISTT_list and tg-l archives

More than 27,000 messages on animal transgenesis available through ISTT_list and tg-l archives

One of the most important assets of the International Society for Transgenic Technologies (ISTT), is the amount of information on animal transgenesis accummulated through the archives of the ISTT_list and tg-l email lists. Currently, more than 27,000 messages are fully available to ISTT members, conveniently organized in searchable and dynamic archives. The traditional transgenic-list (tg-l), operative since 1996 and offered from the ISTT web server since the end of 2011, has distributed over 22,000 messages since then, whereas the ISTT_list, associated and born with our Society in 2006, has disseminated some 5,000 messages, discussing both lists on almost each and every topic, issue or situation related directly or indirectly with animal transgenesis. All this endless information resource is fully available to ISTT members, through powerful search engines. Non-ISTT members subscribing to tg-l have access only to the most recent messages distributed through the tg-l, using the simple search engine, which allows simple searches and outputs the 50 most recent messages discussed on the subject of interest. In contrast, ISTT members have access to more sophysticated searching engines and the output always contains all messages archived on the matter investigated.

Obtaining granted access to these rich sources of information is very easy and cheap. Simply apply for ISTT membership! Submit now your application to become a member of the ISTT and you will get immediate and full access to all these messages.

New ways of inducing pluripotency and additional applications for the CRISPR-Cas system

Saturday, February 1st, 2014
LinkedIn
The CRISPR-Cas system for genome editing was launched in 2013 for applications in animal transgenesis and continues advancing in 2014

The CRISPR-Cas system for genome editing was launched in 2013 for applications in animal transgenesis and continues advancing in 2014

The first weeks of 2014 have generated interesting technical advances in animal transgenesis, and prestigious ISTT members have been involved in them. If this is just a sample of what will come next it would seem appropriate to call this starting 2014 year the wonder year. This past week we knew about a new manner for inducing pluripotency, simply exposing somatic cells to a low pH, using a physical stimulus, transiently applied during a short period of time. This acidic exposure appears to trigger the reprogramming steps required to convert somatic into fully capable pluripotent cells, sustenting the generation of germ-line transmitting chimeras. Furthermore, these STAP (Stimulus-Triggered Acquisition of Pluripotency) cells appear to be able to contribute to both the embryonic and extra-embryonic lineages, thus constituting a unique status of pluripotency.  These awesome two papers, by Haruko Obokata and collaborators, have been published in Nature, and include as co-author in one and senior corresponding author in the other, ISTT member Teruhiko Wakayama, the first scientist awarded the ISTT Prize.

Also last week we learnt about the first non-human knockout primates. A group of Chinese scientists (Yuyu Niu and collaborators), including the most prestigious centres involved in the generation of animal models in China, published a paper in Cell where they reported a new application for the powerful and novel CRISPR-Cas technology to produce mutant monkeys. They generated, for the first time, twin cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) with two targeted loci, Ppar-g and Rag1, in one single step. This collaborative work included as co-authors ISTT member and ISTT Prize awarded scientist Qi Zhou, as well as Xiaoyang Zhao, who received the first ISTT Young Investigator Award.  This achievement, which was not possible to date with standard technologies, illustrates the unlimited power of the CRISPR-Cas system.

We first learnt about the CRISPR-Cas system, as the responsible for adaptative bacterial immunity,  in mid 2012. But it was not until last year, 2013, when the molecular reagents become amenable and applicable for genome editing in animal cells and embryos, for the generation of a variety of genetically-modified animals, including all sorts of transgenic and mutant types, with an explosion of papers and applications. Today, 1st February 2014, as many as 88 papers appear listed in PubMed combining “CRISPR genome editing”. The amazing simplicity of this sytem, and the ease by which anyone can start using this technology in the lab, simply obtaining the two required plasmids (carrying the RNA guide, where the target homologous sequence must be engineered, and the Cas9 nuclease) from diverse providers, including Addgene, explains why the CRIRPR-Cas technology is now being considered a true revolution in our field, in animal transgenesis.

The TT2014 meeting web page has been launched: REGISTRATION IS OPEN!

Thursday, October 31st, 2013
LinkedIn
The TT2014 meeting web site has been launched. REGISTRATION IS OPEN!

The TT2014 meeting web site has been launched. REGISTRATION IS OPEN!

Today, the 12th Transgenic Technology (TT2014) meeting web site has been launched. And meeting registration is already open!. The TT2014 meeting is organized by ISTT members Douglas Strathdee-chair, Peter Hohenstein and Bruce Whitelaw and will be held at The Assembly Rooms, in Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, on 6-8 October 2014. Immediately following the TT2014 meeting, on October 9-10, 2014, there will be a hands-on practical workshop called ‘An Introduction to Zebrafish Transgenesis‘ which will focus on Zebrafish.  Further details about this practical workshop will be announced at the TT2014 meeting web site.

The meeting is hosted by three world-class Scottish research institutes and the University of Edinburgh: the Roslin Institute; the Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine and the Beatson Institute for Cancer Research. All three Institutes are world-renowned for producing top quality science at the forefront of biomedical research. The TT meeting visits the UK for the first time following the previous TT meetings in Guangzhou, China (TT2013); Florida, USA (TT2011); Berlin, Germany (TT2010); Toronto, Canada (TT2008); Brisbane, Australia (TT2007) and Barcelona, Spain (TT2005). This will be the 12th meeting in the series, originally pioneered by Johannes Wilbertz (Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden) in 1999. Since the foundation of the ISTT in 2006, the TT meetings have been the main event sponsored by the Society.

The following speakers have confirmed their participation at the TT2014 meeting:

  • David Adams, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge UK
  • Ignacio Anegon, Center for Research in Transplantation and Immunology, Nantes, France
  • Stephen Ekker, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
  • Kat Hadjatonakis, Developmental Biology Program, Sloan-Kettering Institute, New York, USA
  • Coenraad Hendriksen, Institute for Translational Vaccinology, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
  • Rudolf Jaenisch, Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Nine Cambridge Center Cambridge, USA
  • Jos Jonkers, Division of Molecular Pathology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  • Keith Joung, Molecular Pathology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, USA
  • Alex Joyner, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA
  • Koichi Kawakami, Division of Molecular and Developmental Biology, National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan
  • Jim Murray, Department of Animal Science and Department of Population Health and Reproduction, University of California, Davis, California, USA
  • Stephen Murray, The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine, USA
  • Lluis Montoliu, ISTT President, Organising Committee, National Center of Biotechnology (CNB), CSIC, Madrid, Spain
  • Vasilis Ntziachristos, Technische Universität Mu?nchen, Munich, Germany
  • Pawel Pelczar, Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, Zürich, Switzerland
  • Janet Rossant, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • Angelika Schnieke, Livestock Biotechnology, WZW Center of Life Science, Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany
  • Kai Schönig, Central Institute of Mental Health, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany
  • Austin Smith, Wellcome Trust-Medical Research Council Stem Cell Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
  • Sara Wells, MRC Harwell, Oxfordshire, UK
  • Jacqui White, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge UK

At the TT2014 meeting, the ISTT will be awarding the 10th ISTT Prize for outstanding contributions to the field of transgenic technologies to Prof. Janet Rossant (The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada). The ISTT Prize is generously sponsored by genOway.

At the TT2014 meeting, the ISTT will be also awarding the 3rd ISTT Young Investigator Award, generously sponsored by inGenious Targeting Laboratory. The ISTT Young Investigator Award recognizes outstanding achievements by a young scientist who will keep the field of transgenic technologies vibrant with new ideas and who has recently received his or her advanced professional degree.

At the TT2014 meeting, and for the first time, the ISTT Best Poster Awards, traditionally awarded to the best posters presented at the corresponding TT meeting, will be generously sponsored by Charles River.

Accepted abstracts submitted for the TT2014 meeting, will be published in the scientific journal Transgenic Research (Springer), to which the ISTT is associated.

A minimum of six registration awards for ISTT members will be sponsored by the International Society for Transgenic Technologies. Applications should be sent, along with the registration document to istt@transtechsociety.org by June 30, 2014. Award decisions will be communicated by July 15, 2014 and awardees will receive a diploma at the TT2014 Meeting.

Important deadlines:

  • Abstract submission deadline June 30, 2014
  • Application for ISTT registration awards deadline June 30, 2014
  • Awards to be communicated by July 15, 2014
  • Early Bird registration fee deadline July 31, 2014
  • Standard Rate registration fee from August 1, 2014
  • Late & On-Site Rate registration fee from September 22, 2014

As it is stated in the TT2014 meeting home page: “Scotland prides itself on both its life science research and the warm welcome given to visitors and looks forward to hosting TT2014“. Therefore, on behalf of the ISTT and of the TT2014 Organising Committee we invite you all to attend to the TT2014 meeting.

See you all in Edinburgh!

7th Workshop on Innovative Mouse Models (IMM2013), Leiden, The Netherlands, 13-14 June 2013

Tuesday, February 12th, 2013
LinkedIn
7th Workshop on Innovative Mouse Models (IMM2013), Leiden, The Netherlands, 13-14 June 2013

7th Workshop on Innovative Mouse Models (IMM2013), Leiden, The Netherlands, 13-14 June 2013

The International Society for Transgenic Technologies (ISTT) has agreed to co-sponsor the 7th Workshop on Innovative Mouse Models (IMM2013), which will be held at the Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC), in Leiden, The Netherlands, on 13-14 June 2013.  This will be the third consecutive edition of this meeting series that is granted with the co-sponsorship of the ISTT, after the IMM2011 and the IMM2009 editions, due to its interest and relevance for the community of researchers using genetically-modified mice. The IMM2013 workshop is organized by: Jos Jonkers (NKI-AVL, Amsterdam, The Netherlands), Paul Krimpenfort (NKI-AVL, Amsterdam, The Netherlands), Werner Mueller (University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom), Hein te Riele (NKI-AVL, Amsterdam, The Netherlands), Els Robanus-Maandag (LUMC, Leiden, The Netherlands), Marian van Roon (VU, Amsterdam, The Netherlands and ISTT Member) and Sjef Verbeek (LUMC, Leiden, The Netherlands and ISTT Member).

According to the IMM2013 workshop web page: The primary goal of this two-day workshop is to bring together a diverse group of scientists interested in advanced genome alteration approaches in the mouse, including key developers of emerging technologies as well as researchers who wish to apply and assess these new approaches. The IMM2013 workshop will encourage an in-depth and unvarnished discussion of these technologies and novel developments. This 2-day workshop will have a mixture of invited speakers and selected presentations. Keynote lectures will be given by:

  • Anton Wutz (UK) haploid ESC
  • Haoyi Wang (US) iPS / TALENs
  • Bill Skarnes (UK) high throughput TALENs
  • Ben Davis (UK) docking site/ new recombinases
  • Yann Herault (France) Cre transgenic mice
  • Kevin Brindle (UK) MRI
  • Mathijs Verhagen (NL) large scale phenotyping
  • B Kappes (US) TALENs
  • Zoltan Ivics (Germany) Transposons
Registration will open soon. ISTT members will be entitled to a reduced registration fee.

John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

Monday, October 8th, 2012
LinkedIn
John B. Gurdon (left) and Shinya Yamanaka (right) awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

John B. Gurdon (left) and Shinya Yamanaka (right) awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012 was awarded today, October 8, 2012, jointly to Sir John B. Gurdon (Gurdon Institute, Cambridge, United Kingdom) and Shinya Yamanaka ( Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, and Gladstone Institute, San Francisco, CA, USA) “for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent“. The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet (Stockholm, Sweden) decided to award The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012 jointly to John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka. According to the published Press Release: “The Nobel Prize recognizes two scientists who discovered that mature, specialised cells can be reprogrammed to become immature cells capable of developing into all tissues of the body. Their findings have revolutionised our understanding of how cells and organisms develop“. The International Society for Transgenic Technologies (ISTT) wishes to congratulate both excellent scientists for their outstanding achievements and the very much deserved Nobel Prize they have just been awarded.

John B. Gurdon demonstrated in 1962 that adult frogs could be obtained by the transplantation of nuclei from endoderm cells of Xenopus laevis donors ranging from late blastulae to swimming tadpoles.  In 1966, John B. Gurdon continued his studies on cellular reprogramming in frogs and reported that fertile adult male and female frogs, genetically marked as of solely donor origin, had been obtained from the transplantation of nuclei from intestinal epithelial cells of Xenopus laevis feeding larvae. In 1975, John B. Gurdon reported that tadpoles could be obtained from nuclei transplanted from keratinized skin cells of adult frogs. However, no adult frogs were obtained from nuclear transfer experiments involving adult somatic cells. As concluded by Gurdon and Byrne in 2003, these first series of results obtained by John B. Gurdon, “established the general principle that the process of cell differentiation does not necessarily require any stable change to the genetic constitution of a cell. Thus, cell differentiation depends on changes in the expression not content of the genome“. Similar principles had been envisaged and proposed, but could not be proved, in 1938 by the German embryologist Hans Spemann (awarded the 1935 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine).

Forty years later, after the outstanding results obtained by John B. Gurdon, Shinya Yamanaka reported in 2006 the identification of  four transcription factors (Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4) capable of reprogramming any somatic cell into a cell with properties of a pluripotent stem cell, similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells. Those cells were named as inducible pluripotent stem cell (or iPS cells) and greatly revolutionized the regenerative medicine field and cellular reprogramming studies since then. Yamanaka’s experiment provided a totally innovative method to obtain human pluripotent stem cells, with great regenerative potential, without requiring the use of human embryos, an achievement that has been greatly acknowledged by members of the society who did not accept, according to their private beliefs, the previous use of human embryos to obtain pluripotent stem cells. John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka had already been awarded jointly the 2009 Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Prize “for discoveries concerning nuclear reprogramming, the process that instructs specialized adult cells to form early stem cells — creating the potential to become any type of mature cell for experimental or therapeutic purposes“.

The history of nuclear transplantation and cellular reprogramming has been silently advancing since the beginning of last century, and progressed through a series of phenomenal milestones that were regularly achieved. Starting with the pioneer experiments and the vision of Hans Spemann (1938), then the first nuclear transfer success in frogs by Briggs and King (1952), of course the experiments carried out by John B. Gurdon in the 60′s and early 70′s, already mentioned, and also the studies by Marie DiBerardino (1967) on the effect of cell cycle in the nuclear transfer success, and other, more recent, describing the role of single transcription factor being able to change the fate of a cell (Harold Weintraub, 1987) or the direct reprogramming experiments, betweeen different cellular haematopoietic types, pioneered by Thomas Graf since 1990. However, in my opinion, the one single study that, for the first time, demonstrated that a nucleus from an adult terminally and fully differentiated somatic cell (i.e. a cell derived from mammary gland tissue) could give rise to a fertile normal adult, closing the circle of life, was the birth of Dolly, the sheep, obtained by Ian Wilmut and his collaborators from the Roslin Institute in 1996 and reported in a famous paper in Nature in February 1997.

Ian Wilmut and Dolly the sheep in 1997

Ian Wilmut and Dolly the sheep in 1997

The impact of Wilmut’s study on Biology, Biomedicine, Biotechnology and on the entire Society was phenomenal, tremendous (unfortunately not always positive, independent of him, with intense and never ending debates beyond science) and triggered many subsequent studies, including the use of human pluripotent stem cells, isolated by Thomson and Gearhart teams in 1998, and their potential in regenerative medicine, and eventually the work by Yamanaka and many other. The Nobel Assembly has limited this Nobel award to Gurdon and Yamanaka, who fully deserved the Nobel Prize, but, unfortunately, they did not include other scientists that were instrumental for the progress in reprogramming studies, particularly Ian Wilmut. Dolly’s experiment  is only referred briefly in the advance information provided to interested readers. After discussing this issue the whole day with many colleagues, I believe I speak on behalf of many by stating that a Nobel Prize awarded to Gurdon, Wilmut and Yamanaka, could have been a much better and balanced choice. Gurdon himself stated that he would have liked to share this Prize with Ian Wilmut.  But this is just wishful thinking and the reality is, as usual, different. Having said that, I want to congratulate once again John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka for this Nobel Prize.

On a final sad note, after all the excitement associated with this Nobel Award to reprogramming techniques, we have been informed of the sudden death of Keith H. Campbell, biologist (1954 – 2012), who passed away last Saturday, October 6, 2012. Keith H. Campbell was one of the main co-authors, together with Ian Wilmut, of Dolly’s Nature paper in 1997 (Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells. Wilmut I, Schnieke AE, McWhir J, Kind AJ, Campbell KH, Nature 1997 Feb 27;385(6619):810-3). Keith H. Campbell was currently working at the School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, UK.

 

The ISTT journey: from Barcelona to Guangzhou, now it is time for China! The TT2013 meeting

Sunday, September 23rd, 2012
LinkedIn
The ISTT journey: from Barcelona to Guangzhou, now it is time for China! The TT2013 meeting

The ISTT journey: from Barcelona to Guangzhou, now it is time for China! The TT2013 meeting

The International Society for Transgenic Technologies (ISTT) was founded shortly after the Transgenic Technology (TT) meeting in Barcelona (TT2005). Since then, the ISTT family has been fortunate to visit several countries, every ~18 months. In 2007 we went to Brisbane (TT2007).  In 2008, we visited Toronto (TT2008). In 2010 we returned to Europe and held the TT2010 meeting in Berlin. For 2011 we visited the USA for the first time, and organized the TT2011 meeting in St Pete Beach (Florida). And, now, the next TT meeting (TT2013) is planned for China, in Guangzhou. This has been one of our aims and challenges, since the foundation of the ISTT, namely, holding a TT meeting in Asia, in China. Now it has become a reality. The 11th Transgenic Technology meeting (TT2013) will be held in Guangzhou (China), on 25-27 February 2013, organized by Prof. Ming Zhao (Chair) (Southern Medical University, Guangzhou) and his Organizing and Advisory Committees, immediately after celebrating the Chinese New Year of the Snake. More than 30 speakers have confirmed their participation, to discuss about ES cells, iPS cells, targeted nucleases (ZFNs and TALENs), cryopreservation and reproduction techniques, running a transgenic facility, mouse genetics, epigenetics, ethics and animal welfare, transgenesis in other vertebrates, animal models of disease, etc… among many other interesting topics. At the TT2013 meeting, the ISTT will award the 9th ISTT Prize for outstanding contributions to transgenic technologies to Prof. Allan Bradley,  Director Emeritus of the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (WTSI), in Hinxton (UK), and leader of the Mouse Genomics Team at WTSI.

In addition, a 3-day hands-on practical workshop (28 February-2 March 2013) will be offered in Guangzhou after the TT2013 meeting, addressing basic microinjection techniques, piezo injection, laser-assisted application, non-surgical implantation, mouse colony management and other interesting topics. This workshop is organized by Wenhao Xu (University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA), Chair,  Ming Zhao (Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China), Jing An (Cancer Institute, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China) and Liangping Li (Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China).

Don’t miss this opportunity to hear the latest advances in animal transgenic by world experts! Time is going fast and first deadlines (15 October 2012), for registering at reduced fees, for submitting abstracts, for applying for ISTT registration awards and for nominating candidates for ISTT Young Investigator awards are rapidly approaching.

See you all in China!


This blog is protected by Dave\\\'s Spam Karma 2: 10622 Spams eaten and counting...