Archive for the ‘web site’ Category

The ISTT is moving from Europe to America

Sunday, August 31st, 2014
LinkedIn
The ISTT is moving from Europe to America

The ISTT is moving from Europe to America

The International Society for Transgenic Technologies (ISTT) will soon move its headquarters from Europe to America, from Spain (Europe Union) to the State of New York (United States of America). After the 12th Transgenic Technology (TT) meeting in Edinburgh, TT2014, the ISTT Society will be legally represented by a new non-profit entity: ISTT, Inc., registered in the State of New York (USA) in May 2013, after the corresponding approval was obtained from ISTT members at the Extraordinary General Assembly held at the TT2013 meeting, in Guangzhou, China, in February 2013. This moving process was essentially undertaken to allow any member to run for any position at the Board and to reduce tax running costs. The process is meant to be smooth and transparent to all members which will be kindly requested to join the new entity, to approve the new bylaws and to approve the new Board. Everything else will remain the same and the ISTT members will continue enjoying the same benefits from being part of the ISTT Society. The ISTT thank all of its members for their support and collaboration.

The TT2016 meeting will be held in Prague

Tuesday, August 12th, 2014
LinkedIn
The TT2016 meeting will be held in Prague

The TT2016 meeting will be held in Prague

From the International Society of Transgenic Technologies (ISTT), it is our pleasure to announce that the next, 13th, Transgenic Technology (TT) meeting, TT2016, will be held in Prague (Czech Republic), in March 2016, organized by Dr. Radislav Sedlacek (Associate Professor, Institute of Molecular Genetics; Head of Laboratory of Transgenic Models of Diseases; Project Director, Czech Centre for Phenogenomics; ISTT Member).

The ISTT was delighted to accept a very appealing and well-structured meeting proposal from Prague, a historical city lying in the heart of Europe. Prague is a beautiful city with magical atmosphere. It offers historical as well as modern hotels, restaurants, infrastructure and places of sightseeing. TT2016 conference delegates arriving in Prague will enjoy a high standard of hospitality at very reasonable prices.

The TT2016 meeting web site (http://www.transtechsociety.org/tt2016)  and the official TT2016 meeting address (tt2016@transtechsociety.org) are already operative. Dr. Radislav Sedlacek will present the TT2016 meeting in Edinburgh, at the TT2014 meeting, introducing his team of collaborators, the organizing and advisory committees, their view, plans and expectations for this transgenic technology meeting, where again, and with the support of the ISTT, the Organizers will prepare a very attractive scientific program with all the newest techniques, applications and approaches developed in the field of animal transgenesis.

The TT2016 meeting will he held in Prague in March 2016. The exact dates and location of the conference venue will be communicated shortly.

Mouse Genetics. Methods and Protocols (2014)

Saturday, August 9th, 2014
LinkedIn
Mouse Genetics. Methods and Protocols (2014)

Mouse Genetics. Methods and Protocols (2014)

This is yet another interesting book in our field that has been published this year, 2014. This manual, entitled “Mouse Genetics. Methods and Protocols“, edited by Shree Ram Singh and Vinzenzo Coppola, in association with the Publisher, Humana Press/Springer, contains a collection of useful protocols covering most of the methods that can be currently applied for the genetic modification of the mouse genome. According to its presentation at the Springer web page, this book “provides selected mouse genetic techniques and their application in modeling varieties of human diseases. The chapters are mainly focused on the generation of different transgenic mice to accomplish the manipulation of genes of interest, tracing cell lineages, and modeling human diseases. (…) Each chapter contains a brief introduction, a list of necessary materials, systematic, readily reproducible methods, and a notes section, which shares tips on troubleshooting in order to avoid known pitfalls.

The table of contents of this book illustrates the variety of highly sophysticated methods, beyond standard techniques, that are discussed here in detail, around mouse genetics, including: pronuclear injection-based targeted transgenesis through Cre-loxP specific recombination, the use of recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) strategies, several approaches for preparing and analyzing conditional mutant alleles using tamoxifen-dependent Cre recombinases, the use of ICSI for the generation of transgenic mice, the use of BACs, mosaic analysis with double markers (MADM) in mice, transposon-mediated transgenesis, overexpression of microRNAs using Rosa26-mediated recombination, the isolation of various somatic and pluripotent cells, the generation of transgenic mice through spermatogonial stem cells in vivo, and, several illustrative examples of how different mouse engineered animal models are best suited to study a variety of human diseases. Hence, this book is also complementary to other recently published manuals, since it contains a careful detailed description of new methods that are not been covered in other similar titles in the field.

The editors of this book, Shree Ram Singh and Vinzenzo Coppola, have counted with the generous expertise shared and provided by a very large list of co-authors, including some ISTT members: Masato Ohtsuka, Kazuhito Sakamoto, Channabasavaiah B. Gurumurthy, Kay-Uwe Wagner, Petra Kraus, V. Sivakamasundari, Xing Xing, Thomas Lufkin, Anton J.M. Roebroek, Bart Van Gool, Kun-Hsiung Lee, Susanne Feil, Jana Krauss, Martin Thunemann, Robert Feil, Pedro N. Moreira, Lluis Montoliu, Jane Beil, Thorsten Buch, Sheng Ding, Tian Xu, Xiaohui Wu, Hui Zong, Claudia Piovan, Foued Amari, Francesca Lovat, Qun Chen, Olga Simmons, Esther M. Bolanis, Jian Wang, Simon J. Conway, Kanika Jain, Paul J. Verma, Jun Liu, Pollyanna Agnes Goh, Michael D. Williams, Wilson Wong, Amanda Rixon, Sarang N. Satoor, Anandwardhan A. Hardikar, Mugdha V. Joglekar, Andrei M. Vacaru, Joseph Vitale, Johnathan Nieves, Margaret H. Baron, Kristbjorn Orri Gudmundsson, Kevin Oakley, Yufen Han, Yang Du, Lalit Sehgal, Abul Usmani, Sorab N. Dalal, Subeer S. Majumdar, Spencer W. Luebben, Naoko Shima, Tsuyoshi Kawabata, Robert M. Hoffman, Viive M. Howell, Emily K. Colvin, Vishalakshi Chavali, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Paras Kumar Mishra, Julia Lorenz, Susanne Grässel, Ganesan Ramesh, Punithavathi Ranganathan, Santhakumar Manicassamy, Indumathi Manoharan, Deepak P. Patil, Holly D. Kristensen and Yogesh Shouche.

This new book will be added to the collection of Springer books published on animal transgenesis and animal genetics for which ISTT members are entitled to a 33% discount, as one of the many benefits associated with the ISTT membership.

 

 

CRISPR-Cas resources at the ISTT web site

Tuesday, June 24th, 2014
LinkedIn
CRISPR-Cas resources at the ISTT web site. Illustration from: CRISPR-Cas technology and applications (video by Le Cong from Feng Zhang's lab at MIT/BROAD institute. This video has been made possible thanks to Addgene)

CRISPR-Cas resources at the ISTT web site. Illustration from: CRISPR-Cas technology and applications (video by Le Cong from Feng Zhang’s lab at MIT/BROAD institute. This video has been made possible thanks to Addgene)

CRISPR-Cas strategies are discussed and applied everywhere for the targeted modification of genomes. Every day a new lab is considering using CRISPR-Cas for the generation of their subsequent animal mutants. There are many papers regularly being published on this subject and a number of excellent online resources have been prepared by several labs actively working in this field. For newcomers/beginners this might seem (and it is) a lot of information, potentially difficult to digest.

In this regard, from the International Society for Transgenic Technologies (ISTT), we have prepared a simple web page containing a selection of CRISPR-Cas resources and related information, for anyone willing to start using these technologies. Please, feel free to suggest any additional CRISPR-Cas resources you might be aware/using/have developed, which might be worth including in these web pages. Thanks.

In particular, we wish to thank Feng Zhang (MIT/BROAD) and his lab for their efforts, videos (such as this video from Le Cong, PhD, illustrating this post, this video has been made possible thanks to Addgene, and is part of this series), online desing tools, protocols, etc… disseminating these technologies. Feng Zhang will receive the third ISTT Young Investigator Award and will attend the TT2014 meeting in Edinburgh.

TT2014 abstracts: submission deadline is approaching (30 June)

Tuesday, June 17th, 2014
LinkedIn
TT2014 abstracts: submission deadline is approaching (30 June)

TT2014 abstracts: submission deadline is approaching (30 June)

From the International Society for Transgenic Technologies (ISTT) we warmly invite and encourage you all to submit your most recent and exciting results and developments in animal transgenesis to be presented at the forthcoming 12th Transgenic Technology (TT2014) meeting, which will be held in Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, on 6-8 October 2014. Deadline for submitting abstracts for the TT2014 meeting is June 30.
To submit an abstract please visit this TT2014 meeting web page.

All TT2014 participants are encouraged to submit their work as an abstract for poster presentation at the TT2014 meeting. Authors are requested to submit an abstract with the following requirements:

  • Title (max. 25 words)
  • Name authors and affiliations (first author is the presenting author).
  • Text of the communication (max. 400 words).
  • Abstracts should be submitted no later than June 30, 2014.

Accepted abstracts will be published in the scientific journal Transgenic Research (Springer), to which the ISTT is associated.

Posters
Posters will be on display in the exhibition area throughout the duration of the meeting. Poster boards are 1.00m wide x 2.00m high and we recommend posters do not exceed 1.50m in length. A supply of Velcro tabs will be available at the venue. No screws or double-sided adhesive tape will be allowed due to the damage they can cause to the boards.

Best Poster Awards
All posters presented at the TT2014 meeting will be eligible for one of the ISTT Best Poster Awards, generously sponsored by Charles River, Inc.

Oral Presentations
A limited number of abstract submissions will be selected and invited to present their findings in the form of a short oral presentation within the main meeting program. Should you be interested in being considered to speak at the meeting please select the appropriate option when submitting your abstract.

Abstracts are invited on all aspects of Transgenic Technologies, including the conference themes as listed below:

  • New technologies in animal transgenesis
  • Embryo stem cells
  • Target nucleases or Editing nucleases (ZFNs, TALENs, CRISPRs)
  • Large-scale phenotyping
  • Animal Biotechnology
  • Imaging with transgenic animals
  • Mouse models of human disease
  • Zebrafish models of human disease and transgenesis
  • Animal ethics and welfare

We are looking forward to receiving your exciting works to discuss the latest development on animal transgenesis!. See you all in Edinburgh!

The TT2014 Registration Awards for ISTT members: deadline for submitting applications is 30th June

Monday, June 16th, 2014
LinkedIn
The TT2014 Registration Awards for ISTT members: deadline for submitting applications is 30th June

The TT2014 Registration Awards for ISTT members: deadline for submitting applications is 30th June

A minimum of six registration awards for ISTT members willing to attend the 12th Transgenic Technology (TT2014) meeting, to be held in Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, on 6-8 October 2014, will be sponsored by the International Society for Transgenic Technologies (ISTT). Applications should be sent, along with the registration confirmation and the requested additional documents to istt@transtechsociety.org by June 30, 2014. The ISTT will pay the Registration Fee of all applicants selected for one of these TT2014 registration awards. Please note that applicants not selected for an award are required to pay the corresponding registration fee. Please note the Award covers registration fees and attendance to all social events, however, does not cover travel, accommodation expenses or attendance at pre meeting events. Award decisions will be communicated by July 15, 2014 and awardees will receive a diploma at the TT2014 Meeting.

Applications for registration awards by ISTT members should be sent to the official ISTT email address (istt@transtechsociety.org), by June 30, 2014,  and should include the following documentation:

  • Applicant’s CV
  • Letter describing how the applicant will benefit from attendance at the TT meeting
  • Only for technician/students: Letter of support from the applicant’s head/supervisor stating the support to the applicant’s participation in the TT meeting and highlighting why attendance will benefit the applicant’s career

Procedure
Applicants must register first at the TT2014 website and select, as a payment method, “application for registration awards”. The ISTT will pay the Registration Fee of all applicants selected for an award. However, if they are not selected they would be kindly requested to pay the corresponding registration fee

Selection Process
The ISTT Council will examine all applications received. Registration Awards will be selected according to the documents submitted and with preference given to:

  1. Student/Technician ISTT Members
  2. ISTT Members submitting an abstract for presentation as a poster/short-oral communication at the TT meeting
  3. Any other ISTT Member

Decision
Award decisions will be communicated by July 15, 2014. Awardees will have their TT registration fees entirely waived. Awardees will receive a diploma at the Awards ceremony at the end of the TT2014 meeting. Applicants that are not yet members of the ISTT may choose to register/join first the ISTT and simultaneously submit their travel/registration award application. ISTT Registration/Travel awards for each TT meeting will only be provided to ISTT members who have paid their current annual fees.

Highlights of the TT2014 meeting in Edinburgh: a conference you can’t miss!

Thursday, June 5th, 2014
LinkedIn
The TT2014 meeting in Edinburgh (6-8 October 2014)

The TT2014 meeting in Edinburgh (6-8 October 2014)

This year’s ISTT main activity is the 12th Transgenic Technology conference, the TT2014 meeting, which will be held in Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, on 6-8 October 2014, followed by a 2-day hands-on workshop on basic zebrafish transgenesis techniques. The ISTT promotes the TT meetings every 18 months, these being the most important activity of our Society. This year, the local Organizers and advisory committees, commanded by Douglas Strathdee, need to be praised for preparing a most appealing and interesting program, addressing hot topics, current and most up-to-date issues actively discussed nowadays by the transgenic animal community. Talks that will be presented by the most active and prestigious scientists in our field.

Why you shouldn’t miss the TT2014 meeting?

  • If you are interested in the new transgenic methods associated to nucleases (ZFNs, TALENs and CRISPRs-Cas9) there will be plenty of  interesting talks where these new fantastic tools will be presented and discussed, directly by the key players in this rapidly-evolving field, including: Rudolf Jaenisch, William Skarnes, Angelika Schnieke, Kai Schönig, Ignacion Anegon, Pawel Pelczar, Francis Stewart, Keith Joung and Feng Zhang. And, most likely, these techniques will be referred and cited in many additional talks too, including the round table discussion about the future of transgenic core facilities, chaired by James Bussell.
  • If you are interested in ES cell biology and in innovative uses of ES cells and associated technologies there will be unique talks delivered by Jos Jonkers, Austin Smith, Ian Chambers, Janet Rossant and Alex Joyner
  • If you are interested in phenotyping your mouse animal models there will be fantastic talks delivered by  Jacqueline White, Stephen Murray, David Adams, Daniel MurphyAnna-Katerina Hadjatonakis and Vasilis Ntziachristos
  • If you are interested in non-rodent, large mammals and birds, animal models there will be great talks by James Murray, Angelika Schnieke, Mike McGrew and Adrian Shermann
  • If you are interested in rats there will be compelling talks by Kai Schönig and Ignacio Anegon
  • If you are interested in zebrafish animal models there will be fascinating talks by Stephen Ekker, Koichi KawakamiKeith Joung and Elizabeth Patton
  • If you are interested in animal welfare and 3Rs, in the best use of our laboratory animals, there will be captivating talks by Peter Hohenstein, Sara Wells and Jan-Bas Prins.

Therefore, there will be really engaging talks interesting to everyone in our field. This is why you shouldn’t miss this great and unique opportunity!.

Register now for the TT2014 meeting. Submission of abstracts will be accepted up to June 30. Early-Bird registration at reduced fees will be promoted up to July 31. ISTT members are entitled to reduced fee registration.

See you all in Edinburgh in October!

 

The 2014 ISTT Election Process

Sunday, June 1st, 2014
LinkedIn
The 2014 ISTT Election Process

The 2014 ISTT Election Process

The 2014 ISTT Election Process has been launched. All members of the International Society for Transgenic Technologies are warmly invited to elect the next ISTT President, ISTT Secretary, ISTT Treasurer and three new board members. All these new positions at the ISTT Board will begin their term of service on January 1st, 2015. The 2014 ISTT elections will take place within the members-only area of the ISTT web site, during the entire month of June 2014. Results will be published shortly thereafter. The ISTT wishes to express its deepest gratitude and sincere acknowledgement to all 12 nominated candidates which will run for the various positions to be elected within the board. The official nominated candidates participating in this 2014 ISTT Election Process are: Jan Parker-Thornburg (USA), Lynn Doglio (USA), Channabasavaiah B Gurumurthy (USA), Aimee Stablewski (USA), Cheryl Bock (USA), Martina Crispo (Uruguay), Larry Johnson (USA), Sagrario Ortega (Spain), Xin Rairdan (USA), Tanya Templeton (Australia), Elizabeth Williams (Australia) and Branko Zevnik (Germany). All candidates deserve our most sincere appreciation for their generous willingness to serve and further contribute to the success of our Society. Good luck to everyone!

Meeting report: Promoting the international exchange of mouse mutant resources

Monday, May 12th, 2014
LinkedIn
Infrafrontier-IMPC workshop: Promoting the international exchange of mouse mutant resources, Munich, Germany, 8-9 May 2014

Infrafrontier-IMPC workshop: Promoting the international exchange of mouse mutant resources, Munich, Germany, 8-9 May 2014

This is a brief meeting report on the INFRAFRONTIER /IMPC workshop: Promoting the international exchange of mouse mutant resources, which was held in Munich, Germany, on 08-09 May 2014.
As indicated in the corresponding Infrafrontier web page: “The main objectives of the workshop were to discuss how to simplify the international exchange of mouse mutant resources and to define the procedural changes to achieve it, to review the key issues facing the mouse community and mouse repositories as well as focus on IP issues and to present best practices in sharing research tools. The workshop was targeted at the directors of major mouse repositories, IP and technology transfer experts, representatives of scientific journals and funders and attracted the attention of 70 participants.” Delegates from major mouse repositories (JAX, MMRRC, EMMA, CMMR, RIKEN BRC, CARD, MARC), mouse international projects and consortia (EUCOMM, EUCOMMTOOLS, KOMP, KOMP2, IKMC, IMPC, KMPC), other related consortia (SGC), scientific journals (Nature, PLOS), funding agencies (NIH), companies (BioDoc, Charles River, AddGene), associations (AMMRA, AMPC, FELASA, EARA), TTOs and lawyers from numerous institutions and end-users gathered to discuss about how to best promote the international exchange of mouse mutant resources.

This workshop was funded by the EC FP7 InfraCoMP project. InfraCoMP’s main objective is to coordinate the collaborative efforts between the Infrafrontier Research Infrastructure and the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC). The scope of this Infrafrontier-IMPC workshop in Munich included various major topics, such as:

  • to discuss about simplified procedures to effectively exchange mouse mutant resources among repositories and between repositories and end-users/customers, trying to review and fix all restrictions preventing from adequately sharing major mouse mutant resources.
  • to review the key issues currently faced by the mouse community and mouse repositories, including emerging new genome editing technologies (ZFNs, TALENs, CRISPRs) and the role of mouse archives in the international exchange of mouse mutant resources
  • to discuss on IP issues and the administrative paperwork usually associated with any transactional international negotiation involving licenses and MTAs
  • to showcase best practices, examples of successful sharing research tools that could be applied on sharing mouse mutant resources

This workshop represented a continuation towards the eventual application of the agreements included in the so-called Rome Agenda, published in 2009 (Schofield et al. 2009, Nature) where the major headlines, best practices and recommendations concerning the deposit and sharing of biological resources, including mice, ES cells and germplasm, under the least restrictive terms possible, had been already discussed and identified but, unfortunately, not sufficiently widespread nor systematically followed, in spite of new initiatives adopted by some funding agencies, enforcing public-access policies for materials associated with projects funded by the NIH or the Wellcome Trust in order to receive the allocated funds.

The impact of the new genome editing technologies on current mouse consortia and mouse archives was discussed at length and in depth, from various angles and by different speakers. It is obvious that a new logic has emerged, the updated mouse genetics toolbox and its widespread among scientists enables them to generate their mouse mutants of interest through alternative, often faster approaches. Instead of considering the new endonuclease-mediated mutations solely a threat for traditional approaches, based on ES cell clones (however using higher genetic and quality-controlled standards), it was finally interpreted as an opportunity for mouse consortia and repositories. For example, the easier and faster generation of new mouse mutations could help finishing the functional annotations of the mouse genome, for all these loci that could not be targeted or, if targeted, did not result in the corresponding mouse strain through IKMC-IMPC current approaches.

The description of innovative shipment methods, for refrigerated biological materials, or using dry-ice, as compared to the standard but more complex liquid-nitrogen dry shippers was also discussed in order to make the distribution of mouse mutant resources cheaper and easier. The new set of sperm and oocyte cryopreservation methods and the optimized associated IVF procedures, as reported by CARD, Kumamoto University, in Japan, have also greatly contributed to promote the international exchange of mouse mutant resources, avoiding the always difficult and expensive shipment of live research laboratory animals.

The legal agreements, such as Material Transfer Agreements (MTAs), governing the access to mouse mutant resources were also discussed extensively. The complexity of some of these MTAs and the often long administrative process involved for executing them, unnecessarily extends the time required to access to a given mouse mutant strain deposited in a major repository for academic use. Interesting analyses of common practices observed within the international mouse community and applied by mouse consortia were presented (Bubela et al. 2012Mishra and Bubela, 2014). The overall recommendation was, whenever possible, avoid using specific MTAs and favor the unrestrictive distribution of mouse resources through simpler “conditions of use”, as regularly applied by The Jackson Laboratory (JAX) to all their mouse strains, and by EMMA-INFRAFRONTIER, for mouse lines non-associated to specific MTAs, in order also to reduce the administrative time to the minimum. In case MTAs should be included, for academic non-commercial use, the recommendations discussed were to simplify, and unify, the document as much as possible, ideally without requesting to disclose the field of use, without imposing reach through on modifications of the received materials and clearly defining third-party use after permission has been obtained. Attribution should also be clearly encouraged. Examples of simplified MTAs, also including useful institutional versions of these agreements, can be found at KOMP. The model deployed by AddGene, a non-profit organization dedicated to efficiently distribute plasmids among the scientific community, using also simple MTA procedures, was also presented as an example of successful solution.

Overall, this intense 2-day Infrafrontier-IMPC workshop fulfilled its aims and expectations. All stakeholders in the field could openly express their opinions, fears, opportunities, problems and solutions. The Organizers should be praised for their selection of speakers, topics and participants. Now it will be the time for the most difficult part: converting the agreements and recommendations into realities, while ensuring that researchers in academia, using mouse mutant resources, have an easier, simpler and faster access to mice and/or their associated products, for the benefit of science, and knowledge advance.

Infrafrontier-IMPC workshop: Promoting the international exchange of mouse mutant resources, Munich, Germany, 8-9 May 2014

Infrafrontier-IMPC workshop: Promoting the international exchange of mouse mutant resources, Munich, Germany, 8-9 May 2014

Submit your abstract(s) to the TT2014 meeting in Edinburgh: 30 June

Sunday, May 11th, 2014
LinkedIn
Submit your abstract(s) to the TT2014 meeting in Edinburgh: 30 June

Submit your abstract(s) to the TT2014 meeting in Edinburgh: 30 June

The submission of abstracts for the 12th Transgenic Technology (TT2014) meeting, to be held in Edinburgh (Scotland, UK), on 6-8 October, is OPEN. All TT2014 participants are encouraged to submit their work as an abstract for poster presentation at the TT2014 meeting. Authors are requested to submit an abstract with the following requirements: Title (max. 25 words), Name authors and affiliations (first author is the presenting author), and, Text of the communication (max. 400 words). Abstracts should be submitted no later than June 30, 2014. Accepted abstracts will be published in the scientific journal Transgenic Research (Springer), to which the ISTT is associated.

Posters
Posters will be on display in the exhibition area throughout the duration of the meeting. Poster boards are 1.00m wide x 2.00m high and we recommend posters do not exceed 1.50m in length. A supply of Velcro tabs will be available at the venue. No screws or double-sided adhesive tape will be allowed due to the damage they can cause to the boards. All presented Posters at the TT2014 meeting will be entitled to the Best Poster Awards, generously sponsored by Charles River.

Oral Presentations
A limited number of abstract submissions will be selected and invited to present their findings in the form of a short oral presentation within the main meeting program. Should you be interested in being considered to speak at the meeting please select the appropriate option when submitting your abstract.

Abstracts are invited on all aspects of Transgenic Technologies, including the conference themes as listed below:

  • New technologies in animal transgenesis
  • Embryo stem cells
  • Target nucleases or Editing nucleases (ZFNs, TALENs, CRISPRs)
  • Large-scale phenotyping
  • Animal Biotechnology
  • Imaging with transgenic animals
  • Mouse models of human disease
  • Zebrafish models of human disease and transgenesis
  • Animal ethics and welfare

This blog is protected by Dave\\\'s Spam Karma 2: 9998 Spams eaten and counting...